To ensure long-term and trouble-free operation of a diesel engine, the following basic provisions should be followed:
- - periodically check the condition of fastening of assembly units, tighten the fasteners;
- - Before starting the diesel, check the oil level in the diesel crankcase and the coolant in the expansion tank;
- - after starting, before switching on the load, let the diesel engine run for 2-3 minutes, first at the minimum idle speed with a gradual increase to the maximum frequency;
- - load the diesel only after the temperature of the coolant in the cooling system rises to 40°C;
- - before putting a new diesel engine into operation under load, run it in;
- - diesel engine idling for more than 15 minutes is not recommended;
- - do not overload the diesel engine during operation and monitor the readings of control devices;
- - do not stop the diesel engine by blocking the suction duct except in emergency cases;
- - use fuel and oil only of those brands recommended by the manufacturer;
- - keep the diesel engine clean, prevent leakage of fuel, oil and coolant, suction of uncleaned air into the cylinders;
- - diesel engine can operate at longitudinal and transverse slopes of not more than 35°;
- - before stopping the diesel engine after removing the load, let it run for 3-5 minutes, first at medium and then at the minimum idle speed to reduce the temperature of the coolant and oil, then stop the diesel engine by moving the fuel supply control lever to the position , corresponding to a fuel cut (failure to follow this order may lead to failure of the turbocharger).
Maintenance of diesel mechanisms
It consists in regularly adjusting the gap between the valves and rocker arms, as well as tightening the cylinder head bolts after the first 4000 km of the car.
For the procedure for adjusting the valves and tightening the cylinder head, see "Installing the cylinder head and valve mechanism D-245".
Maintenance of the lubrication system
Checking the oil level in the diesel crankcase should be carried out daily using the oil level indicator located on the diesel cylinder block on the right side.
The oil level should be between the lower and upper marks of the pointer.
Checking should be done no earlier than 3-5 minutes after stopping the diesel engine, when the oil has completely drained into the crankcase.
It is not allowed to operate a diesel engine with an oil level in the crankcase below the lower and higher marks on the index.
To change the oil in the diesel crankcase, unscrew the oil crankcase plug on a warm diesel engine.
After all the oil has drained from the crankcase, tighten the plug.
Diesel must be filled with oil through the oil filler pipe to the level of the upper mark.
Cleaning of the centrifugal oil filter rotor should be done at the same time as changing the oil.
To do this, do the following:
- - unscrew the nut 1 fastening the cap of the centrifugal oil filter and remove it;
- - stop the rotor from turning, for which insert a screwdriver or a rod between the filter housing and the bottom of the rotor and, turning the nut 4 fastening the rotor cup with a wrench, remove the rotor cup 3;
- - check the condition of the protective grid of the rotor and, if necessary, clean and rinse it;
- - use a scraper to remove a layer of deposits from the inner walls of the rotor cup.
Before assembling the cup with the rotor housing, the rubber o-ring must be lubricated with engine oil.
Then align the balancing marks on the cup and the rotor body.
The cup fastening nut must be tightened with a little force until the cup is fully seated on the rotor.
- - After assembly, the rotor should rotate easily without jamming from a push by hand.
After that, it is necessary to reinstall the cap of the centrifugal oil filter and tighten the cap nut with a torque of 35-50 Nm.
When installing an oil filter with a paper filter element on a diesel engine, it must be replaced, as described in the article "Diesel oil filter D-245".
Cooling system maintenance
To check the coolant level, open the tap located in front of the expansion tank (for vehicles manufactured before 2000).
The outflow of coolant indicates its normal level.
On cars of recent years of production, the coolant in the expansion tank must be filled according to the marks.
The fan drive belt tension is checked after 4000 km of car or bus run.
The tension of the fan belt is considered normal if its deflection on the branch of the crankshaft pulley
- the generator pulley is within 12 ... 17 mm when pressed with a force of 40 N.
The cooling system must be filled with low-freezing coolant, or clean soft water.
Hard water should be softened with the addition of 10-12 g of soda ash per 10 liters of water.
The normal operating temperature of the coolant should be 75...95°C.
If the temperature rises above normal, you should check the coolant level in the expansion tank, the tightness of the radiator and the tension of the fan belt.
If necessary, flush the cooling system from contamination.
For washing, use a solution of 50-60 g of soda ash per 1 liter of water.
Flushing the system should be done in the following order:
- - pour 2 liters of kerosene into the radiator and fill the system with the prepared solution;
- - start the diesel engine and run for 8-10 hours, then drain the solution and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Fuel system maintenance
It consists in checking the condition of the system devices, the reliability of their fastening, cleaning, washing or replacing filters, draining the sludge from the filters for coarse (FGO) and fine (FTO) cleaning of the fuel and fuel tank.
During winter operation, it is recommended to drain the sediment from the fuel system more often in the amount of 100-300 ml.
If the sludge from the tank is not drained in a timely manner, the life of the PTF filter elements, the fuel priming pump and the manual fuel pump will be significantly reduced.
The increased water content in the fuel during winter operation causes clogging of the fuel intake with ice crystals, which leads to diesel engine failure during start-up.
WARNING! adding gasoline to diesel fuel significantly reduces the life of fuel equipment and diesel.
Under normal operating conditions, during TO-1, it is necessary to drain the sediment from the CSF body.
When filling a car tank with unsettled fuel, drain the sediment from the CSF of fuel at least once a week.
When carrying out maintenance, it is necessary to flush the filter element in clean diesel fuel, and then blow it with compressed air at a pressure of 0.3-0.4 MPa.
When operating a car in conditions of increased dust content, the CSF should be flushed every 350 ... 400 km.
When filling car tanks with unsettled fuel, the filter element should be replaced when the diesel power is reduced, but not less often than routine maintenance.
To drain the sludge from the CSF, unscrew plug 1 at the bottom of the filter bowl and drain the sludge until clean fuel appears.
Then close the cork.
To clean the filter you need:
- - drain fuel from filter through drain plug 1;
- - unscrew four bolts and remove cap 2;
- - wash the mesh of the filter element 4 with gasoline or diesel fuel, blow it with compressed air at a pressure of 0.3 ... 0.4 MPa;
- - build in reverse order.
To drain the sludge from the fine fuel filter, unscrew the plug 4 at the bottom of the filter and drain the sludge until clean fuel appears.
Then close the cork.
To replace the PTO filter element, you need:
- drain the fuel from the filter by unscrewing the plug at the bottom of the housing;
- - unscrew the cover fastening nuts 1 and remove the cover;
- - remove filter element 2 from the body;
- - rinse the internal cavity of the filter housing 3;
- - assemble the filter with a new filter element;
- - unscrew the air bleed plug on the fuel pump housing by 1-2 turns and the fitting on the fuel fine filter;
- - bleed the system using a fuel priming pump, successively closing plug 3 on the fuel pump housing and plug 1 on the fine filter when fuel appears.
Maintenance of the injection pump is carried out at the stand.